Washington Treaty, 1871


Washington Treaty, 1871
   Dealt with the Alabama claims; arbitration of the San Juan boundary; North Atlantic fisheries; navigation of certain rivers and canals and of Lake Michigan; system of bonded transit; exemption from duty of United States logs floated down the St. John River. An attempt was made by Sir John A. Macdonald, who represented Canadian interests in the negotiation of the treaty, to revive the provisions of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, but without success. The other British commissioners were Earl de Grey, Sir Edward Thornton, Sir Stafford Northcote, and Professor Montague Bernard. The United States representatives were Hamilton Fish, General Schenck, Judge Nelson, Judge Hoar, and Senator Williams. The treaty was duly ratified, and brought into operation by proclamation, July 4, 1871. It was terminated, at the instance of the United States, July, 1885.
   Index: Md History of, 165-192; questions arising out of American War of Secession, 165; questions of special interest to Canada--San Juan boundary, Fenian Raid claims, inshore fisheries, reciprocity, 166-167; Joint High Commission, 168-169; personnel of commission, 169; Macdonald a member, 169; difficulty of his position, 172; outcome of negotiations, 174-178; San Juan boundary referred to arbitration, 178-180; settlement of fisheries question, 181-183; Macdonald signs treaty in interests of empire, 184-185; meets storm of opposition in Canada, 185-186; defends treaty in Parliament, 186-190; Halifax Commission and award, 190. B Brown's mission of 1874, and abortive Reciprocity Treaty of same year, a direct result of, 225.
   Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Houston, Constitutional Documents; Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions; Messages, Despatches, and Minutes of the Privy Council Relative to the Treaty of Washington, Ottawa, 1872; Cushing, The Treaty of Washington; Adams, Before and after the Treaty of Washington.

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